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黄河关注 | 无以名状的过敏之痛
时间:2018-05-22 点击率 : 88

无以名状的过敏之痛

       林佳:“你不要我了怎么办
       孟云:那我就像至尊宝一样去最繁华的街道喊一百遍:林佳我爱你。
       孟云:那你不要我了怎么办?”
       后来,她因为吃芒果过敏而进了医院。之后,两个人再也没见。


       电影《前任3:再见前任》的这段感情戏赚足了观众眼泪,女主吃芒果吃到瘫在桌上的场景让人印象深刻。剧中女主角林佳吃芒果进医院是典型的食物性过敏病例。这种防不胜防的食物过敏,真是潜伏在身边的生命陷阱。对吃货们来说,更是不能言。

      比起对水果、坚果、海鲜等食物过敏,方小染的过敏人生才是悲惨世界。方小染出生在江南小镇,来北京读大学的第三年,开始各种过敏,先是不停打喷嚏,然后咳嗽,然后哮喘,然后荨麻疹…….这些都是过敏么?过敏发病的形态超出了很多人的认知。自从得了过敏,方小柒吃饭越来越小心,食谱变得越来越窄。海鲜吃了不行,晚上嗓子会有拉风箱的声音;辛辣口味不敢尝,吃了荨麻疹会钻心地痒;闻不得烟味儿,呼不得冷空气,否则会咳嗽不止……“过敏就像个定时炸弹,不知道什么时候在什么地方会爆炸,我就要体无完肤地尴尬忍着。方小柒每天活得小心翼翼,看过很多医生,病症也不是没好过,可好了后就莫名其妙地多出一种过敏原,直到2018年年初查出对小麦粉过敏这真是我的新年礼物,我都不知道我还能吃什么?

方小柒的经历,是过敏世界以外的人无法想象也无法理解的。美国作家桑德拉·巴斯莱写了一本书《过敏的人生》,讲的是她自己从一出生就有严重的多种食物过敏,在小时候被营养专家断言不符合适者生存的原则,但她还是奇迹般地生存下来。方小柒看过这本书,她说,她也要像桑德拉那样,学会如何在这个过敏的世界里避开潜伏的各种危险。至少,我不像凯蒂,我可以尽情洗澡、游泳。方小染因为过敏,认识了很多同样遭遇的过敏者。凯蒂是另一个备受过敏折磨的英国女孩,她对水过敏,水让她的皮肤又痛又痒。凯蒂小时候做了扁桃体手术,术后服用了盘尼西林,之后却发现对盘尼西林过敏。医生认为服用盘尼西林可能改变了她体内的组胺水平,组胺是人体内一种可以影响过敏反应的物质。此后,凯蒂还发现,每次碰水后自己身上都会起疹子。凯蒂被诊断患有水源性薄麻疹。凯蒂不能流泪,不能淋雨,每次洗完澡,都要至少呆两个小时,等身上的痒痛消失后,才能出门。对于不过敏的小伙伴们来说,一定都惊呆了吧。


据世界变态反应组织报告,全世界有20%~30%的普通人被过敏问题困扰,数亿人患过敏性鼻炎,有3亿人患哮喘。特别是近二三十年来,全球总患病率已高达20%。世界卫生组织已经把过敏列为21世纪重点防治的三大疾病之一。过敏真的很变态?过激又叫变态反应。然而,人们对过激知道得并不多。78日定为世界过敏性疾病日。希望通过增通全民对过敏性疾病的认识,共同来预防过敏反应及过敏性哮喘。如果不是过敏性哮喘发作,夜里睡不着觉,我也不会重视过敏,没想到过敏这么严重。方小柒刚开始有过敏症状的时候没能重视。经过与过敏抗争后,方小柒对过敏有了些专业的认识。正常人体内有一套完整的自我保护免疫系统,身体会制造抗体用来抵御疾病的侵害,当某些有害的外来物质侵入人体时,就可以将其中和或消化掉。当免疫系统失灵,超出了应有的程度和范围时,就会将一些正常无害的物质如某些花粉、蛋白质、粉尘等视为外来物质进行攻击,这样就会伤害到机体的一些正常细胞、组织和器官,就形成了过敏。过敏这种变态反应有一种不确定性,甚至是致命性的。长期受到过敏折磨的人,一定听过死亡之吻的过敏症:加拿大蒙特利尔一名20岁女子勒梅,从小就对花生过敏,但男友却在不知情的情况下,在吃过花生后和她接吻,导致她出现严重过敏反应,送医后宣告不治。

      北京协和医院副主任医师文利平在(摆脱过敏)一书中说,过敏现象虽然是偶然发生的,但过敏一旦发生,这种机制就不会再离开你的身体。或者说,在你身体的免疫系统里,藏着一套敏感机制,时刻准备着,只要一接触过敏原,它就自动发生,呈现出过敏症状。过敏就是这样,只要你身体里有敏感机制,它就会如影随形,无所不在。


目前,世界卫生组织公认的脱敏治疗,是按一定规律给患者间断皮下注射其过敏的物质,剂量由小到大,使患者对此类过敏原逐渐耐受,再次接触时,不再产生过敏现象或过敏症状减轻。脱敏治疗的确为不少过敏患者解除病患,然而,并不是所有过敏者都适合此方法,这除了跟过敏反应的类型有关以外,还跟过敏原的制剂有关。试想,大千世界有那么多过敏原,要做到准确分类、有效提取等,十分不易。而且,脱敏治疗有副作用。主要副作用是过敏反应,包括注射部位局部的过敏反应和全身的过敏反应。另外,治疗时间久、起效慢、费用高,也是导致很多过敏者在治疗方法的选择上纠结的原因。前不久,美国广播公司(ABC News)报道,世界上第一个抗食物过敏疫苗即将上线,昆士兰科学家AndeasL0B正在通过研究由鱼类、蛋类、贝类导致的不良反应来开发防止食物过敏的疫苗。这值得人们期待,但是,疫苗也有它的禁忌症和不良反应,也需要谨慎对待。除了直接对抗过敏,在美国亚利桑那州斯诺弗莱克,有20个家庭共同组成了一个防过敏社区”——不接入电网,没有Wi-Fi,没有化妆品、乳液、香水、护发产品、芳香洗涤剂、织物柔顺剂等,阻断接触各种化学制剂、合成纤维或电磁波的机会,从而达到防过敏效果。在那里生活几年后的过敏者,过敏症状得到明显的改善。但这种远离尘世的生活,只能小范围尝试。显然,回避过敏原不能根本解决问题。

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