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【行业动态】“两票制”倒逼药企销售转型
时间:2017-09-18 点击率 : 790


【行业动态】“两票制”倒逼药企销售转型
      “两票制”成为医药领域流通变革不可忽视的政策原因。根据Wind数据显示,A股医药生物类共有上市公司261家半年报披露完毕。过半数企业提到业绩受到“两票制”影响。“两票制”通过压缩药品流通环节直接影响医药企业销售模式转变和销售费用上涨。大多省份“两票制”将在下半年全面推广,为应对“两票制”带来的影响,越来越多的医药企业由低开向高开销售模式转变。
“两票制”来袭
      “两票制”试行半年后,对医药企业的影响开始显现。北京商报记者发现,大多已经披露半年财报的医药企业在财报中提到“两票制”对企业销售产生影响。
金嗓子表示,医药“两票制”已由部分试点省份向全中国推广,给药品流通市场带来较大影响,公司今年上半年调整经营政策以及经销商和推广商的结构对公司销售收益造成短期负面影响,公司上半年净利润为2033.4万元,
      同比减少78%。华兰生物同样表示,公司业绩不及预期主要是因受“两票制”影响,小经销商受到冲击,采购量减少,造成公司血制品库存积压。

      西藏药业在半年财报中提到,“两票制”的推进导致回款结算方式发生变化,配送商的结算由现款现货变为账期结算,导致应收账款增加,公司2017年上半年应收账款1.6亿元,同比上涨160.7%。贝达药业表示,受“两票制”影响,公司2017年上半年新增经销商较多,增加了经销商信用额度,公司2017年上半年应收账款同比增长166%。


      分析认为,上市公司相关费用变化受多种因素影响,在全国多省市,“两票制”下半年才全面实行,届时对医药企业的影响会更加明显。云南白药在中报中表示,2017年下半年,“两票制”、医保支付价格等政策将密集落地,传统医药健康产业将面临更大挑战。
销售、回款大变革
      试行半年后,“两票制”将在全国范围内进行推广。2017年1月,国务院医改办、国家卫计委等八部门联合发布《关于在公立医疗机构药品采购中推行“两票制”的施行意见(试行)》,要求综合医改试点省(区、市)和公立医院改革试点城市率先推行药品采购“两票制”。鼓励其他地区执行“两票制”,争取到2018年在全国全面推开。相关统计数据显示,截止到2017年8月,全国已有25个省份发布了关于开展药品采购“两票制”的实施方案。
      两票制对制药企业的影响主要是销售模式转变带来的销售费用上涨,或回款结算方式变化等原因导致回款压力增加;对于医药商业企业的影响,在于行业整合力度加大、集中度提高。两票制”最明显和最直接的影响体现在药品流通领域,压缩了药品流通环节,以批发调拨为主的配送商和部分非规范企业将会被淘汰,大幅提升行业集中度。
      “两票制”推广在提升行业集中度的同时,也让众多医药企业销售模式受到冲击,转变销售模式成为众多医药企业应对“两票制”的对策。
“低开”转向“高开”
      受“两票制”影响,众多医药企业开始由“低开”销售模式向“高开”销售模式转变。北京大学政府管理学院教授顾昕此前在接受媒体采访时表示,目前药品零售主要有以较低的出厂价将药品卖给大包商,然后再层层转包,最后进入终端的“低开”营销模式和尽量抬高出厂价,通过独家经销商向终端销售的“高开”营销策略。“两票制”实施后,“低开”模式受到冲击最大,药企纷纷向“高开”模式转变。
华润三九在财报中提到,为应对“两票制”对传统医药经销模式带来的冲击,公司将加快处方药业务转型,调整过去以低价为主的业务模式,结合已实施“两票制”政策地区的实践,逐渐扩大自营业务比重。华兰生物表示,公司将推动渠道变革,与大型经销商形成联盟、调整二三线城市和三甲医院销售布局等。
      一位不愿具名的分析人士向北京商报记者表示,“两票制”对药企的主要影响是原先的低价销售模式改为高价销售模式,将销售费用和可能的灰色利益输送全部要算在出厂价上,药企的合规和税务上的压力剧增。由于药企在
      原先低价销售模式下,一切都是甩给代理商去运营,无论是法律合规的风险还是税务上的规避都非常容易,但随着“两票制”的推出,高开模式导致药企需要缴纳高额的税收,如何将销售费用冲抵也面临挑战。因此,药企正在寻求第三方销售外包的模式来规避政策的冲击,但随着监管的趋严,第三方销售外包的模式也将在未来受到合规的冲击。“现在一些企业为解决税收问题会注册到免税或者税收较少的园区中。”
      针对“两票制”对公司影响以及未来针对“两票制”全面推广对公司造成的影响及如何应对等问题,北京商报记者致电西藏药业和华兰生物董秘办公室,但电话处于无人接听状态,随后记者将采访提纲发至公司邮箱,截至发稿并未收到相关回复。


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